Motor neuron diseases are neurodegenerative. They are caused when the motor neurons do not function properly in the brain. These are the nerve cells responsible for controlling the muscles that facilitate the body movement. They carry the signals from the brain to the different muscles of the body. When they fail, the patients find extreme problems in simple body movements like speaking, walking, turning, and standing. These medical conditions lead to MND which is a progressive neurological degenerative disease affecting the motor neurons in the body. Many types of research are conducted to find a proper treatment for this incurable disease. The stem cell therapy is seen as a potential cure for motor neuron disease treatment in India.
Understanding the Types of Motor Neuron Diseases:
Motor Neuron Diseases or MND occur in four different types:
- Progressive Muscles Atrophy affecting the lower neurons in spinal cord.
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affecting upper and lower motor neurons.
- Primary Lateral Sclerosis affecting only the lower neurons.
- Progressive Bulbar Palsy damaging the lower neurons in the brain stem.
The scientists have still not found the clear causes leading to this fatal disease. Nearly 10% cases of MND are inherited from the parents. The motor neurons become prone to damages when the cells that help them in their functioning become dysfunctional. Once damaged, they severely affect the movement of body.
The Role of Stem Cells in Treatment of MND:
No medication has proved effective to control the progression of this serious disease in the long-term. In this direction, research has substantiated the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for making progressive advancements. The scientists are studying the changes causing damages by occurring simultaneously in a patient’s body. They are focusing on finding the treatment that repairs the damaged nerve cells and helps in reversing the disability caused by this disease. The stem cell therapy for motor neuron disease treatment in India uses autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. They proved effective in neuroregeneration, neuroprotection, and immunomodulation. Different possibilities are offered by the different types of stem cells used in this treatment.
MND is caused when nerve cells in the body are damaged. It can be hard to access these cells for their repair. In this regard, studies are conducted to transform the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells that can be reprogrammed artificially. These cells help in understanding the human cell behaviour in a clear and accurate manner.
The circuits in the human nervous systems are complicated and they must be refined to enable control over their movements. When stem cells are injected into these circuits, it becomes hard to predict the behaviour of the cells. This makes the treatment challenging for the practitioners. Hence, MSCs are being studied by the researchers for their effectiveness.